Evaluation of the Antifertility Effect and Toxicity of Areca nut as Oral Contraceptive: Study on Male Rats





antifertility, areca, fertility, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic


Currently, very few male contraceptive methods are available. Areca nuts are known to have an antifertility effect, but the effective, safe dose is not certainly known. Data on its effectiveness and safety are needed to develop the potential of the areca nuts as an herbal contraceptive in men. This study determines the antifertility effect of areca nut administration at doses of 40, 30, and 20 mg/kgBW and their safety on the kidneys and liver. The green-colored raw areca nuts were used. The treatment groups were male rats whose fertility status was known before treatment. The control group were given distilled water. The treatment were given one dose a daily dissolved for 28 days of treatment, then male rats were bred again. Rats were terminated for histopathological examination of liver, kidneys, testes, and for analysis of spermatozoa. The administration of areca nuts caused a decreasing number of litters, but only the group given 40 mg/kgBW dose had a significant decrease (p<0.05). There were a damaged testes, a decreasing number and motility of spermatozoa as well as increasing spermatozoa abnormalities. There were no changes in liver tissue, but there was a mild grade cast in kidney tissue. Areca nut have antifertility effect in male rats with dose dependent manner, histopathological examination revealed cast nephotoxic but not hepatotoxic.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Ave Olivia Rahman, University of Jambi


Hasna Dewi, University of Jambi

histology and Anatomy pathologist


Abbe CR, Page ST, and Thirumalai A. Male Contraception. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 2020;93:603–613.

Heinemann K, Saad F, Wiesemes M, White S, and Heinemann L. Attitudes Toward Male Fertility Control: Results of A Multinational Survey on Four Continents. Human Reproduction. 2005; 20(2): 549–556.

Kent K, Johnston M, Strump N, and Garcia TX. Toward Development of the Male Pill: A Decade of Potential Non-Hormonal Contraceptive Targets. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology. 2020; 8(61): 1–17.

Lampiao F. Complementary and Alternative Medicines: The Herbal Male Contraceptives. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines. 2011; 8(5): 27–32.

Bala K, Arya M, and Katare DP. Herbal Contraceptive: An Overview. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2015; 3(8): 1305–1326.

Yuan J, Yang D, Liang Y, et al. Alkaloids From Areca (Betel) Nuts and Their Effects on Human Sperm Motility in Vitro. Journal of Food Science. 2012; 77(4): 70–78.

Kafle S, Shanbhag T, Shenoy S, et al. Antifertility Effect of Areca Catechu in Male Albino Rats. Internasional Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research. 2011;10(1):79–82.

Akmal Muslim, Aulanni'am, and Riawan W. Ekspresi Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) pada Jaringan Testis Tikus (Rattus Norvegicus) Akibat Paparan Ekstrak Biji Pinang (Areca Catechu). Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya. 2007; 23(3): 121–124.

Rahman AO, Simanjuntak CA, Dewi H, and Syauqy A. The High Dose Toxicity of Betel Nut ( Areca Catechu L .) on Reproduction Organ of Rats. Jambi Medical Journal. 2019; 7(1): 41–49.

Rahman AO, Purwakanthi A, and Dewi H. Antifertility Effect Of Betel Nut (Areca Catechu L) In Male Rat. MEDISAINS. 2020; 18(2): 52-57.

Kuo TM, Luo SY, Chiang SL, et al. Arecoline Induces TNF-Alpha Production and Zonula Occludens-1 Redistribution in Mouse Sertoli TM4 Cells. Journal of Biomedical Science. 2014; 21(1): 1–10.

Licata A, Macaluso FS, and Craxi A. Herbal Hepatotoxicity: A Hidden Epidemic. Internal and Emergency Medicine. 2013; 8(1): 13–22.

Nasri H and Shirzad H. Toxicity and Safety of Medicinal Plants. Journal of HerbMed Pharmacology. 2013; 2(2): 21–22.

Stournaras E and Tziomalos K. Herbal Medicine-Related Hepatotoxicity. World Journal of Hepatology. 2015; 7(19): 2189–2193.

Zhang J, Onakpoya IJ, Posadzki P, and Eddouks M. The Safety of Herbal Medicine: From Prejudice to Evidence. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2015; 2015: 1–4.

Adediji JA, Adediji, and Eze GI. Effects of Short Term Oral Administration of Aqueous Extracts of Areca Nut (Areca Catechu) on Liver Profile of Adult Wistar Rats. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences. 2015; 14(10): 62-67.

Rahman AO and Purwakanthi A. Kidney Tubular Injury of Rats Caused by Unripe Green Betel Nuts (Areca Catechu) Ave. Jurnal Kedokteran dan Kesehatan Indonesia. 2020; 11(1): 27–33.

Rahman AO. Efek Hepatotoksik Jus Pinang Muda (Areca Catechu) pada Tikus Hepatotoxicity Effect of Raw Betel Nut Juice (Areca Catechu) in Rats. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya. 2018; 30(2): 92–97.

Lohith TS, Shridhar NB, Dilip SM, Pattar J, and Krishna S. Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study of Raw Areca Nut Extract in Rats. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 2013; 4(5): 238–240.

Zhou J, Sun Q, Yang Z, and Zhang J. The Hepatotoxicity and Testicular Toxicity Induced by Arecoline in Mice and Protective Effects of Vitamins C and E. The Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology. 2014; 18(2): 143–148.

Dvanajscak Z, Cossey LN, and Larsen CP. A Practical Approach to the Pathology of Renal Intratubular Casts. Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology. 2020; 37(3): 127–134.

Sari EF, Prayogo GP, Loo YT, Zhang P, McCullough MJ, and Cirillo N. Distinct Phenolic, Alkaloid and Antioxidant Profile in Betel Quids from Four Regions of Indonesia. Scientific Reports. 2020; 10(1): 1–12.

Liu W, Yin D, Li N, et al. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment. Scientific Reports. 2016; 6: 1–18.

Rasoanaivo P, Wright CW, Willcox ML, and Gilbert B. Whole Plant Extracts Versus Single Compounds For The Treatment Of Malaria: Synergy And Positive Interactions. Malaria Journal. 2011; 10(1): 1-12.



2022-03-02 — Updated on 2022-04-11




Research Article