Physical Activity Improves Muscle Strength and Reduces Inflammatory Markers in Diabetic Elderly Patients
Regular exercise has an effect on muscle strength and inflammatory markers. The aim of this study is to determine the relation of regular exercise with muscle strength and inflammatory markers (IL-6, CRP) in diabetic elderly compared to non-diabetic ones. A case control study was conducted to 30 elderly by giving them regular exercise. Fifteen subjects were diabetic and the other fifteen were non-diabetic. The data were analyzed using Chi-Square, independent t-Test and Mann Whitney. The result shows handgrip 24,9(14,8-34,6)kg in diabetic vs. 25(6,8-42,1)kg in non-diabetic (p=0,673); 4 meters walk was 3,38(2,34-8,18)s in diabetic vs 3,26(2,06-4,36)s in non-diabetic (p=0,263); IL-6 level was 1,61(0,37-14,02)pg/mL in diabetic vs 1,47(0,52-10,17)pg/mL in non-diabetic (p=0,983); CRP level was 0,23(0,18-0,33)mg/dL in diabetic vs 0,22(0,11-1,01)mg/dL in non-diabetic (p=0,622). HbA1C was 7,35 (5,9-13)%. There is no significant difference in muscle strength and inflammatory markers on the diabetic and non-diabetic groups who exercise regularly. This study shows that regular exercise and well-controlled HbA1C give a good impact on muscle strength and inflammatory markers of the diabetic elderly patients.
Keywords: CRP, diabetes, IL-6, elderly, exercise
Wild S, Roglic G, Green A, Sicree R, and King H. Global Prevalence of Diabetes: Estimates for the Year 2000 and Projections for 2030. Diabetes Care. 2004; 27(5): 1047â€“1053.
Boyle JP, Honeycutt AA, Narayan KM, et al. Projection of Diabetes Burden through 2050: Impact of Changing Demography and Disease Prevalence in the U.S. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24(11): 1936â€“1940.
Gregg EW, Beckles GL, Williamson DF, et al. Diabetes and Physical Dis-Ability Among U.S. Adults. Diabetes Care. 2000; 23(9): 1272â€“1277.
Gregg EW, Mangione CM, Cauley JA, et al. Diabetes and Incidence of Functional Disability on Older Women. Diabetes Care. 2002; 25(1): 61â€“ 67.
Ryerson B, Tierney EF, Thompson TJ, et al. Excess Physical Limitations among Adults with Diabetes in the U.S. Population, 1997â€“1999. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(1): 206â€“210.
De Rekeneire N, Resnick HE, Schwartz AV, et al. Diabetes is Associated with Subclinical Functional Limitation in Nondisabled Older Individuals: The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Diabetes Care. 2003; 26(12): 3257â€“3263.
Cesari M, Penninx BW, Pahor M, et al. Inï¬‚ammatory Markers and Physical Performance in Older Persons: the in CHIANTI Study. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2004; 59(3): 242â€“248.
Visser M, Pahor M, Taaffe DR, et al. Relationship of Interleukin 6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor a with Muscle Mass and Muscle Strength in Elderly Men and Women: The Health ABC Study. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences. 2002; 57(5): M326-M332.
Schaap LA, Pluijn SMF, Deeg DJ, and Visser M. Inflammatory Markers and Loss of Muscle Mass (Sarcopenia) and Strength. The American Journal of Medicine. 2006; 119(6): 526.e9-526.e17.
Taaffe DR, Harris TB, Ferrucci L, Rowe J, and Seeman TE. Cross-Sectional and Prospective Relationships of Interleukin-6 and C-Reactive Protein with Physical Performance in Elderly Persons: MacArthur Studies of Successful Aging. Journal of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 2000; 55(12): M709-M715.
Poehlman ET, Dvorak RV, de Nino WF, Brochu M, and Ades PA. Effects of Resistance Training and Endurance Training on Insulin Sensitivity in Non-Obese, Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2000; 85(7): 2463â€“2468.
Kim HK, Suzuki T, Saito K, et al. Effects of Exercise and Amino Acid Supplementation on Body Composition and Physical Function in Community-Dwelling Elderly Japanese Sarcopenic Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. 2012; 60(1): 16-23.
Sindhur JC and Sanjay P. Comparative Study to Determine the Hand Grip Strength in Type-II Diabetes versus Non-Diabetic Individuals-A Cross Sectional Study. Indian Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy. 2013; 7(1): 243-245.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).