The Nurses' Experience in Providing Health Care for Criminals in General Hospital


  • Wirmando Wirmando Universitas Brawijaya Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Stella Maris Makassar
  • Asti Melani Astari Universitas Brawijaya
  • Laily Yuliatun Universitas Brawijaya



Criminals, experience, health care, nurses


Providing health care for criminals is very complex, stressful, and challenging for the general hospital nurses who are usually not habituated to treat them. The nurses are required to keep their caring and professional work. Providing health care for criminals puts the nurses into a risky working environment. They are susceptible to physical and psychological aggressions that can influence their practices and their applied nursing care quality. The objective of this research is to explore the general hospital nurses' experience in providing health care for the criminals. This is qualitative method research with a phenomenological approach. The data collection was done by a deep interview for 10 nurses. The applied data analysis is the Interpretative Analysis Phenomenology (IPA). The six themes found in the research are: 1) feeling discomfort in working, 2) experiencing emotional conflict, 3) working in an unsafe environment, 4) having difficulties in creating a therapeutic relationship, 5) unnatural caring emergence, and 6) not wanting the police officers to get involved in treating the patients. The security and emotional feeling factors of the nurses become the greatest challenges. They make the nurses difficult to create a therapeutic relationship and lead to unnatural caring committed by the nurses. Therefore, it is important for the nurses to internalize and reflect sincere caring as the essential principles in the nursing profession. Thus, it can reach the objectives of nursing, service equality, and patient recovery.


Download data is not yet available.


United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. UNODC Crime and Criminal Justice Statistics. (Online) 2016. di [diakses tanggal 20 September 2009].

Badan Pusat Statistik. Persentasi Penduduk Miskin. (Online) 2019. di pressrelease/ 2019/07/15/1629/persentase-penduduk-miskin-maret-2019-sebesar-9-41-persen.html [diakses tanggal 3 September 2019].

Mcconville S, Mooney AC, Williams BA, and Hsia RY. How do ED Patients With Criminal Justice Contact Compare with Other ED Users ? A Retrospective Analysis of ED Visits in California. BMJ Open. 2018; 8(6): 1-8.

Melillo KD. Caring for Incarcerated Older Adults, Aging, Mental Health, and Incarceration. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 2009; 35(7): 3–6.

Redgewell S. Patient or Prisoner? Caring In a Secure Environment. Centre for Crime Justice Matters. 2010; 81(1): 6–7.

Margalith I, Tabak N, and Granot T. Student Nurses' Care of Terrorist and Their Victims. Nursing Ethics. 2008; 15(5): 601-613.

Smith FD. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care. Association of Operating Room Nurses Journal. 2016; 103(3): 282–288.

Dhaliwal K and Hirst S. Caring in Correctional Nursing: A Systematic Search and Narrative Synthesis. Journal of Forensic Nursing. 2016; 12(1): 5–12.

Maeve MK and Vaughn MS. Nursing with Prisoners : The Practice of Caring, Forensic Nursing or Penal Harm Nursing? Advances Nursing Science. 2001; 24(2): 47–64.

Creswell JW. Research Design: Quantitative, Qualitative and Mixed Methods Approaches. California: SAGE Publications; 2014; p. 232-342.

Smith JA and Osborn M. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. In: Smith JA (Ed). Qualitative Psychology. 4th edition. Washington: SAGE Publications; 2007; p. 53–80.

Walsh E. The Emotional Labor of Nurses Working in Her Majesty' S (HM) Prison Service. Journal of Forensic Nursing. 2009; 5(3): 143–152.

Weiskopf CS. Nurses' Experience of Caring for Inmate Patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2005; 49(4): 336–343.

Muiruri PN, Brewer G, and Khan R. If It Wasn't for Ethics, I Wouldn't Go Near Him: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Caring for Patient-Prisoners in Kenya. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology. 2019; 63(14): 2440–2452.

Crampton R and Turner DS. Caring for Prisoners-Patients: A Quandary for Registered Nurses. Journal Perianesthesia Nursing. 2014; 29(2): 107–118.

Harris DM, Happell B, and Manias E. Working With People Who Have Killed : The Experience and Attitudes of Forensic Mental Health Clinicians Working With Forensic Patients. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing. 2015; 24(2): 130–138.

Junewicz A. Shackled: Providing Health Care to Prisoners Outside of Prison. The American Journal of Bioethics. 2014; 14(7): 13-19.

Zust BL, Busiahn L, and Janisch K. Nurses' Experiences Caring for Incarcerated Patients in a Perinatal Unit. Issues Mental Health Nursing. 2013; 34(1): 25–29.

Christensen S. Enhancing Nurses' Ability to Care Within the Culture of Incarceration. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 2014; 25(3): 223–231.

Courtwright A, Raphael-Grimm T, and Chollichio F. Shackled: The Challenge of Caring for an Incarcerated Patient. The American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine. 2008; 25(4): 315–317.

Watson J. Nursing: The Philosophy and Science of Caring. Boston: Little Brown; 1979; p. 178-278.

Watson J. Postmodern Nursing and Beyond. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone; 1999; p. 171-205.

Belcher M, and Jones LK. Graduate Nurses' Experiences of Developing Trust in The Nurse–Patient Relationship. Contemporery Nurse. 2009; 31(2): 142–152






Research Article