Antioxidant Properties of TeNan Herbal Tea Formulation “Telang (Clitoria ternatea) and Pineapple (Ananas comosus)”
Keywords:Ananas comosus, antioxidant, Clitoria ternatea, flavonoids, phenol
Herbal teas was are widely consumed by people around the world have high antioxidant activities. The flavor and color combination of specific teas enriches the aroma and appearance of the tea, producing a tea with fresh color and tastier flavor. This study determines the antioxidant activity of telang flower tea (Clitoria ternatea), pineapple tea (Ananas comosus), and the formula of the combination of telang flower tea and pineapple tea called TeNan. The antioxidant activities of herbal teas were measured by 2,2 Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2), 2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay. The total phenol measurement used Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE), while the flavonoid content measurement used Quercetin Equivalent (QE). The DPPH scavenging activities of telang flower tea, pineapple tea, and TeNan tea (IC50: 17.07%, 11.81%, and 22.22%), H2O2 scavenging activities (IC50: 26.62%, 41.81%, and 96.22%), ABTS-reducing activities (IC50: 2.51%, 3.39%, and 1.02%), and FRAP activities (IC50: 5.56%, 18.67%, and 7.48%). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents of TeNan tea were lower (9.44 μg GAE/100%; 3.46 μg QAE/100% sample concentration) than those of telang flower tea (16.20 μg GAE/100%; 4.88 μg QAE/100% sample concentration) but higher than those of pineapple tea (0.82 μg GAE/100%; 0.17 μg QAE/100% sample concentration). TeNan tea has the higher in ABTS and FRAP activities but lower in H2O2 and DPPH scavenging activities compared to telang flower tea and pineapple tea. In summary, telang tea has stronger antioxidant activity compared to pineapple and TeNan tea in FRAP and H2O2 assays.
Hayat K, Iqbal H, Malik U, Bilal U, and Mushtaq S. Tea and Its Consumption: Benefits and Risks. Critical Reviews in Food Science And Nutrition. 2016; 55(7): 939–954.
Statista. Tea Consumption wby Country (Online). 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/ 940102/global-tea-consumption/ [accessed 11 April 2022)
Zhao J, Deng JW, Chen YW, Li SP. Advanced Phytochemical Analysis of Herbal Tea in China. Journal of Chromatography. A, Symposium Volumes. 2013; 1313: 2–23.
Ravikumar C. Review on Herbal Teas. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2014; 6(5): 236–238.
Fu Y, Chao YJ, Cunningham AB, et al. A Billion Cups: The Diversity, Traditional Uses, Safety Issues and Potential of Chinese Herbal Teas. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2018; 222: 217–228.
Tschiggerl C and Bucar F. The Volatile Fraction of Herbal Teas. Phytochemistry Reviews. 2012; 11(2): 245–254.
Sanlier N, Gokcen BB, and Altuğ M. Tea Consumption and Disease Correlations. Trends Food Science & Technology. 2018; 78: 95–106.
Kinki AB. A Review on the Production and Uses of Herbal Teas. Journal of Nutrition and Food Processing. 2021; 4(2): 1-3.
Reynertson KA. Phytochemical Analysis Of Bioactive Constituents from Edible Myrtaceae Fruits. [Dissertations]. City University of New York, 2007.
Cai Y, Luo Q, Sun M, and Corke H. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Compounds of 112 Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Associated with Anticancer. Life Sciences. 2004; 74(17): 2157–2184.
Hassan A, Othman Z, and Siriphanich J. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr.). In: Yahia EM (Ed). Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Amsterdam: Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2011: p. 194–217.
Das G, Patra JK, Debnath T, Ansari A, and Shin HS. Investigation of Antioxidant, Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, and Cytotoxicity Potential of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using the Outer Peel Extract of Ananas Comosus (L.). PLoS One. 2019; 14(8): 1-19.
Ajayi AM, Coker AI, Oyebanjo OT, Adebanjo IM, and Ademowo OG. Ananas Comosus (L) Merrill (Pineapple) Fruit Peel Extract Demonstrates Antimalarial, Anti-Nociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Experimental Models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2022; 282: 1-8.
Gollen B, Mehla J, and Gupta P. Clitoria Ternatea Lin: A Herb with Potential Pharmacological Activitiesfuture Prospects as Therapeutic Herbal Medicine. Journal of Pharmalogical Reports. 2018; 3(141): 1-8.
Andriani D and Murtisiwi L. Uji Aktivitas Antioksidan Ekstrak Etanol 70% Bunga Telang (Clitoria ternatea L) dari Daerah Sleman dengan Metode DPPH. Pharmacon Jurnal Farmasi Indonesia. 2020; 17(1): 70–76.
Kazuma K, Noda N, and Suzuki M. Flavonoid Composition Related To Petal Color In Different Lines Of Clitoria Ternatea. Phytochemistry. 2003; 64(6): 1133–1139.
Phrueksanan W, Yibchok-Anun S, and Adisakwattana S. Protection of Clitoria Ternatea Flower Petal Extract Against Free Radical-Induced Hemolysis and Oxidative Damage in Canine Erythrocytes. Research in Veterinary Science. 2014; 97(2): 357–363.
Putri DA, Ulfi A, Purnomo AS, and Fatmawati S. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Ananas Comosus Peel Extracts. Malaysian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. 2018; 14(2): 307–311.
Saptarini N, Rahayu D, and Herawati I. Antioxidant Activity of Crude Bromelain of Pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) Crown from Subang District, Indonesia. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences. 2019; 11(4): 551-555.
Prahastuti S, Hidayat M, Hasianna ST, et al. Antioxidant Potential Ethanolic Extract of Glycine Max (L.) Merr. Var. Detam and Daidzein. Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2019; 1374(1): 1-13.
Widowati W, Wargasetia TL, Zakaria TM, et al. Antioxidant Activity of TEMON (Clitoria ternatea and Citrus sp.) as an Infused Herbal Tea. Traditional Medicine Journal 2022; 27(1): 32-40
Widowati W, Janeva BW, Nadya S, et al. Antioxidant and Antiaging Activities of Jasminum Sambac Extract, and Its Compounds. Journal of Reports in Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2018; 7(3): 270–285.
Lister INE, Ginting CN, Girsang E, et al. Antioxidant Properties of Red Betel (Piper crocatum) Leaf Extract and its Compounds. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2019; 19(4): 198–205.
Aryal S, Baniya MK, Danekhu K, Kunwar P, Gurung R, and Koirala N. Total Phenolic Content, Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Potential of Wild Vegetables from Western Nepal. Plants. 2019; 8(4): 1-12.
Turumtay EA, Islamoǧlu F, Çavuş D, Şahin H, Turumtay H, and Vanholme B. Correlation between Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Anzer tea (Thymus praecox Opiz subsp. Caucasicus var. Caucasicus). Industrial Crops Products. 2014; 52: 687–694.
Kumar P, Kalita P, Barman T, Chatterjee T, and Maity S. Quantification of Total Flavonoid Content and Antioxidant Activity in Comparison to a Reference Flavonoid as in Vitro Quality Evaluation Parameter for Assessing Bioactivity of Biomarkers in Herbal Extracts or Formulations. JPR BioMedRx an International Journal. 2013; 1(8): 757–766.
Kalita P, Tapan BK, Pal TK, and Kalita R. Estimation of Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) and Antioxidant Activities of Methanolic Whole Plant Extract of Biophytum Sensitivum Linn. Journal of Drug Delivery & Therapeutics. 2013; 3(4): 33–37.
Škrovánková S, Mišurcová L, and Machů L. Antioxidant Activity and Protecting Health Effects of Common Medicinal Plants. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2012; 67: 75–139.
Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Quantitative Analysis, In Vitro Assessment of Bioavailability and Antioxidant Activity of Food Carotenoids—A Review. Journal of Food Composition Analysis. 2010; 23(7): 726–740.
Mukhopadhyay D, Dasgupta P, Roy DS, et al. A Sensitive In vitro Spectrophotometric Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenging Assay using 1,10-Phenanthroline. Free Radicals Antioxidants. 2016; 6(1): 124–132.
Zeb A. Concept, Mechanism, and Applications of Phenolic Antioxidants in Foods. Journal of Food Biochemistry. 2020; 44(9): e13394.
Zhang H and Tsao R. Dietary Polyphenols, Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2016; 8: 33–42.
Chayaratanasin P, Barbieri MA, Suanpairintr N, and Adisakwattana S. Inhibitory Effect of Clitoria Ternatea Flower Petal Extract on Fructose-Induced Protein Glycation and Oxidation-Dependent Damages to Albumin in Vitro. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2015; 15(1): 1–9.
Gamage GCV, Lim YY, and Choo WS. Anthocyanins from Clitoria ternatea Flower: Biosynthesis, Extraction, Stability, Antioxidant Activity, and Applications. Frontiers in Plant Science. 2021; 12: 1-17.
Izli N, Gokcen I, and Taskin O. Impact of Different Drying Methods on the Drying Kinetics, Color, Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Pineapple. CYTA -Journal Food. 2018; 16(1): 213–221.
Hossain MA and Rahman SMM. Total Phenolics, Flavonoids, and Antioxidant Activity of Tropical Fruit Pineapple. Food Research International. 2011; 44(3): 672–676.
Zakaria NNA, Okello EJ, Howes MJ, Birch-Machin MA, and Bowman A. In Vitro Protective Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Clitoria ternatea L. Flower Against Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cytotoxicity and UV-Induced mtDNA Damage in Human Keratinocytes. Phytotherapy Research. 2018; 32(6): 1064–1072.
Jeyaraj EJ, Lim YY, and Choo WS. Effect of Organic Solvents and Water Extraction on the Phytochemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Clitoria ternatea Flowers. ACS Food Science & Technology. 2021; 1(9): 1567–1577.
Feng X, Hang S, Zhou Y, Liu Q, and Yang H. Bromelain Kinetics and Mechanism on Myofibril from Golden Pomfret (Trachinotus blochii). Journal of Food Science. 2018; 83(8): 2148–2158.
Kaur R, Abmwani S, Mehta B. Trypsin, Rutoside and Bromelain alone and Fixed Dose Combination: A Natural, Safer and Effective Anti-Inflammatory Agent. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutic 2014; 4(1): 108-110.
- 2022-11-04 (2)
- 2022-08-31 (1)
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).