Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of 70% Ethanol-Diluted Extract of Piper Crocatum Leaves in Stretozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats


  • Sinu Andhi Jusup Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University



diabetes mellitus, insulin hormon, MDA, piper crocatum leaves


Red betel plant (Piper crocatum) has been empirically used to cure diabetes mellitus. However, data regarding this plant are still limited. The aim of this study was to find antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of 70% ethanol-diluted extract of Piper crocatum leaves. Thirty Wistar rats aged 4 months were divided into 6 groups (I-VI) randomly. The groups of I-IV were injected with 40 mg i.p streptozotosin to induce DM. All groups were treated for 21 days. Group I (normal control group) and group II (diabetic control group) were given normal saline, while group III, IV, and V were treated with various doses of 70% ethanol-diluted extract of Piper crocatum  leaves (50, 100, 200 mg/kg.b.w/day). Group VI (positive control group) was given glibenclamide 0,9 mg/kg.b.w/day. On day 21, the body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma MDA, and insulin levels of all rats were examined. The data were processed using statistics to determine the effectiveness of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the extract. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and plasma MDA levels were observed in group III, IV, and V (p=0,00), when compared to group II (diabetic control group). A significant increase in body weight (p=0,04) and plasma insulin levels (p=0,008) occurred in group V only. In conclusion, seventy percent ethanol-diluted extract of Piper crocatum leaves has potential antidiabetic and antioxidant activities.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Sinu Andhi Jusup, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Sebelas Maret University

Department of Physiology,


Daisy P and Rajathi M. Hypoglycemic Effects of Clitoria ternatea Linn. (Fabaceae) in Alloxan-induced Diabetes in Rats. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2009; 8(5): 393-398.

Cavallerano J. Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline Care of the Patient with Diabetes Mellitus. Reference Guide for Clinicians. St. Louis: American Optometric Association; 2009.

Parildar H, SerterR, and Yesilada E. Diabetes Mellitus and Phytotherapy in Turkey. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association. 2011; 61(11): 1116-1120.

Rosalina Tan RT, Mohamed S, Samaneh GF, Noordin MM, Goh YM, and Manap MYA . Polyphenol Rich Oil Palm Leaves Extract Reduce Hyperglycaemia and Lipid Oxidation in STZ-Rats. International Food Research Journal. 2011; 18: 179-188.

Pérez YY, Jiménez-Ferrer E, Zamilpa A, et al. Effect of a Polyphenol-Rich Extract from Aloe Vera Gel on Experimentally Induced Insulin Resistance in Mice. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 2007; 35(6): 1037-1046.

Noor A, Gunasekaran S, Manickam AS, and Vijayalakshmi MA. Antidiabetic Activity of Aloe Vera and Histology of Organs in Streptozotocininduced Diabetic Rats. Current Science. 2008; 94(8): 1070-1076.

El-Soud NA and Khalil M. Antioxidative Effects of Allium Cepa Essential Oil in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010. 15; 3(4): 344-351.

World Health Organization. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. Genava, Switzerland: WHO; 1994.

Alfarabi M. Kajian Antidiabetogenik Ekstrak Daun Sirih Merah (Piper Crocatum) In Vitro. [Tesis]. Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. 2010

Suratmo. Potential of red betel Leaves Extract (Piper crocatum) as an antioxidant. [Tesis]. Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. 2010.

Volpato GT, Calderon IM, Sinzato S, Campos KE, Rudge MV, and Damasceno DC. Effect of Morus Nigra Aqueous Extract Treatment on the Maternal-Fetal Outcome, Oxidative Stress Status and Lipid Profile of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 138(3): 691-696.

George C, Lochner A, and Huisamen B. The Efficacy of Prosopis Glandulosa as Antidiabetic Treatment in Rat Models of Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 137(1): 298-304.

Akbarzadeh A, Norouzian D, Mehrabi MR, et al. Induction of Diabetes by Streptozotocin in Rats. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 2007; 22(2): 60-64.

Abeeleh MA, Ismail ZB, KR Alzaben, Sami AH, Al-Essa M, and Abeeleh JA. Induction of Diabetes Mellitus in Rats Using Intraperitoneal Streptozotocin: A Comparison between 2 Strains of Rats. European Journal of Scientific Research. 2009; 32(3):1450-1216.

Lensen S. The Mechanism of Alloxan and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008; 51(2): 216-226.

Srivatsan R, Das S, Gadde R, et al. Antioxidants and Lipid Peroxidation Status in Diabetic Patients with and without Complications. Archives of Iranian Medicine. 2009; 12(2): 121-127

Baydas G, Canatan H, and Turkoglu A. Comparative Analysis of the Protective Effects of Melatonin and Vitamin E on Streptozocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus. Journal of Pineal Research. 2002; 32(4): 225-230

Anderson RA, Broaddhurst CL, Polansky MM, et al. Isolation and Characterization of Polyphenol Type-A Polymers from Cinnamon with Insulin-like Biological Activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004; 52(1): 65-70.

Fenercioglu AK, Saler T , Genc E, Sabuncu H, and Altuntas Y. The Effects of Polyphenol-Containing Antioxidatins on Oxidative Stress and Lipid peroxidation in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus without Complications. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. 2010: 33(2); 118-124.

Kukner A, Colakoglu N, Ozogul C, Naziroglu M, and Firat T. The Effect of Combined Vitamin C and E in Stretozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Kidney. Research Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009; 3(6): 214-220.

Musalmah M, Fairuz AH, Gapor MT, and Ngah WZ. Effect of Vitamin E on Plasma Malondialdehyde, Antioxidant Enzyme Levels and the Rates of Wound Closures during Wound Healing in Normal and Diabetic Rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 11(Suppl): S448–S451.

Setiawan B dan Suhartono E. Stres Oksidatif dan Peran Antioksidan pada Diabetes Melitus. Majalah Kedokteran Indonesia. 2005; 55(2): 86-91.

Seven A, Guzel S, Seymen O, et al. Effects of Vitamin E Suplementation on Oxidative Stress in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rat: Liver and Plasma Investigation. Yonsei Medical Journal. 2004; 45(4): 703-710.

Hanhineva K, Törrönen R, Bondia-Pons I, et al. Impact of Dietary Polyphenols on Carbohydrate Metabolism. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2010; 11(4): 1365-1402.






Research Article