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Determinan Keberhasilan Pemberian Air Susu Ibu Eksklusif

Bayu Kurniawan
  Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, Vol 27, No 4 (2013),  pp.236-240  

Abstract


Pemberian ASI eksklusif secara nasional pada tahun 2010-2012 hanya 33,6-35%. Menyusui adalah perilaku kesehatan multidimensional yang dipengaruhi oleh interaksi dari faktor sosial, demografi, biologi, pre/postnatal, dan psikologi. Penelitian dilakukan untuk mengidentifikasi faktor determinan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Cross sectional retrospective study dilakukan di Instalasi Rawat Jalan dan Rawat Inap RS Muhammadiyah Lamongan pada Januari-Maret 2013. Sebanyak 150 ibu dari anak berusia 6-24 bulan dilibatkan sebagai sampel penelitian yang diambil dengan metode purposive quota sampling. Kuesioner digunakan sebagai instrumen penelitian untuk mengevaluasi faktor sosiodemografik, pre/postnatal, dan psikososial terhadap keberhasilan ibu memberikan ASI eksklusif dengan uji korelasi Spearman. Hasil menunjukkan angka ASI eksklusif sebesar 35,3% dengan masa pemberian terbanyak sampai usia 4 bulan. Permasalahan menyusui (rs=0,249, p=0,002) dan kunjungan ke klinik laktasi, keinginan (rs=0,306, p=0,000), keyakinan (rs=0,306, p=0,000), dan persepsi ibu tentang kepuasan bayi saat menyusu (rs=0,263, p=0,001), dukungan suami (rs=0,318, p=0,000) dan orang tua (rs=0,290, p=0,000) mendorong keberhasilan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Usia tua (rs=-0,196, p=0,016), ibu bekerja (rs=-0,170, p=0,038), pemberian susu formula di instansi pelayanan kesehatan(rs=-0,335, p=0,000), MPASI dini pada bayi usia <6 bulan (rs=-0,710, p=0,000), dan pemakaian empeng (pacifier) (rs=-0,189, p=0,020) menjadi faktor yang menghalangi keberhasilan pemberian ASI eksklusif. Pemberian MPASI dini merupakan faktor determinan negative yang paling kuat, sedangkan keyakinan dan persepsi ibu yang kuat tentang menyusui merupkan faktor determinan positif yang paling kuat. Kata Kunci: ASI eksklusif, pre/post natal, psikososial, sosiodemografi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jkb.2013.027.04.11

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