The Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA) Bystanders' Intentions


  • Sri Andarini Faculty of Medicine, Brawijaya University
  • Tony Suharsono Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medecine, Brawijaya University



Bystanders of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (OHCA), intention, theory of planned behavior, volunteers of Indonesian Red Cross


The theory of planned behavior states that intention is the best predictor of behavior. The intention to perform a behavior is determined by a person's attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. As volunteers in the health sector, volunteers of the Indonesian Red Cross (PMI) have been equipped with knowledge and skills regarding the role of an OHCA bystander. Besides, the intentions of PMI volunteers greatly affect a person's tendency to be willing or unwilling to become an OHCA bystander. This study aims to apply the theory of planned behavior in identifying the factors that influence the intentions of PMI volunteers in acting as OHCA bystanders and the dominant factors that affect intentions. This study used an observational research type with a cross-sectional approach. The respondents in this study were 105 PMI volunteer members in Tuban Regency, which were conducted using the purposive sampling technique. In determining the most dominant factor that influenced intention, ordinal logistic regression analysis was used in which it was shown that the variable used in the last modeling analysis stage was the subjective norm (OR= 6.19). Based on the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that subjective norms are the most predictor factor that influences intentions.


Download data is not yet available.


Benjamin EJ, Virani SS, Callaway CW, et al. Heart Disease And Stroke Statistics - 2018 Update: A Report From The American Heart Association. Circulation. 2018; 137(2): 67–492.

Neumar RW, Shuster M, Callaway CW, et al. Part 1: Executive Summary: 2015 American Heart Association Guidelines Update for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care. Circulation. 2015; 132(18): 315–367.

Taniguchi T, Omi W, and Inaba H. Attitudes Toward the Performance of Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Japan. Resuscitation. 2007; 75(1): 82–87.

Panchal AR, Fishman J, Camp-rogers T, Starodub R, and Merchant RM. An “ Intention-Focused ” Paradigm For Improving Bystander CPR Performance. Resuscitation. 2015; 88: 48–51.

Hoffmann T. Health Professions: Research and Advocacy. In: CQ Press (Ed). Washington Information Directory 2019–2020. Washingtin: CQ Press; 2019: p. 382–393.

Regard S, Rosa D, Suppan M, et al. Evolution of Bystander Intention to Perform Resuscitation Since Last Training: Web-Based Survey. JMIR Formative Research. 2020; 4(11): 1–16.

Jiang Y, Wu B, Long L, Li J, and Jin X. Attitudes and Willingness Toward Out-Of-Hospital Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Questionnaire Study among the Public Trained Online in China. BMJ Open. 2020; 10(10): 1–7.

Kusumaningsih D, Irianto H, and Antriyandarti E. Effects of Health Consciousness and Environmental Attitude on Intention Towards Organic Food Purchase. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2019; 633(1): 6–12.

Lu C, Jin Y, Meng F, et al. An Exploration of Attitudes Toward Bystander Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in University Students in Tianjin, China: A Survey. International Emergency Nursing. 2016; 24: 28–34.

Magid KH, Ranney ML, and Risica PM. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Intentions to Perform Bystander CPR among College Students. Journal of American College Health. 2021; 69(1): 1–6.

Song KS, Park KY. Factors Influencing for Intention to Perform Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Elementary and Secondary School Teachers. Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing. 2020; 31(3): 384–394.

Siswono A, Syaufina L, and Rushayati SB. Correlation Study of Environmental Knowledge, Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceptions of Behavior Control on Students' Environmental Care Behavior. Science Education Journal. 2020; 4(1): 1-17.

Drosten M, Gutteling JM, and Vries PW. Don't Be Afraid: Save a Life With CPR. Determinants of Citizen's Intention to Participate in AED Alert. (Online) 2016. 5135478/MarlousDrosten_ etal2016.pdf

Permatasari LP. Pengaruh Sikap, Norma Subjektif, dan Kontrol Perilaku terhadap Intensi Berhenti Merokok sebagai Dampak Peraturan Gambar Peringatan pada Mahasiswa Strata Satu di Kota Malang. Jurnal Ilmiah Mahasiswa FEB. 2016; 3(2): 1689–1699.

Farisy F and Siswantara P. Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Niat dan Perilaku Santri Pesantren Al Fitrah untuk Terlibat Aktif dalam Poskestren. Jurnal Ilmiah Kesehatan Media Husada. 2016; 5(2): 129–142.

Sandi PL, Bratajaya CNA, and Susilo WH. Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Intensi Masyarakat Untuk Berobat Ke Pelayanan Kesehatan. Jurnal SMART Keperawatan. 2020; 7(1): 1-7.

Lin X, Chang SC, Chou TH, Chen SC, and Ruangkanjanases A. Consumers' Intention to Adopt Blockchain Food Traceability Technology Towards Organic Food Products. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(3): 1–19.

Bengtson VL and Settersten RA. Handbook of Theories of Aging. 3rd edition. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2016.

Cooke R, Dahdah M, Norman P, and French DP. How Well Does the Theory of Planned Behaviour Predict Alcohol Consumption? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Health Psychology Review. 2016; 10(2): 148–167.



2022-02-28 — Updated on 2022-04-11




Research Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>