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Efficacy of TWIST (Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion) Score System for Differential Diagnosis in Acute Scrotum




acute scrotum, diagnostic, testicular torsion


The acute scrotum is a common urological emergency and has a broad differential diagnosis. The TWIST (Testicular Workup for Ischemia and Suspected Torsion) Score, a risk scoring system based on signs and symptoms, can be invaluable in managing patients with the acute scrotum, specifically testicular torsion. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the TWIST scoring system for differential diagnosis of acute scrotal population. The study was conducted using secondary data, medical records from 111 male patients diagnosed with acute scrotum in Saiful Anwar General Hospital Malang between January 2015 and December 2018. Data about the onset of pain, first contact, history, physical examination findings, any adjunct test performed, and intra-operative findings were collected. The efficacy of the TWIST score in diagnosing testicular torsion was determined by calculating the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Of the 111 patients, 43 patients (38.7%) had testicular torsion. The mean age was 17.49 (6.69) years. A total of 39 patients were classified as high risk as per the TWIST Score with cut point 5 had 83.7% sensitivity, 95.6% specificity, 92.3% positive predictive value (PPV), and 90.3% negative predictive value (NPV). The area under the curve was 0.82. A low testicular salvage rate of 18% was obtained. The use of the TWIST Score in clinical practice can accurately determine high-risk patients who can proceed straight to the operating theatre without the need for an ultrasound, while low-risk patients can be treated without ultrasound examination. 


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Author Biographies

Nyoman Gede Prayudi,

Department of Urology, Brawijaya University

Besut Daryanto,, Saiful Anwar Hospital

Department of Urology, Brawijaya University

Taufiq Nur Budaya, .

Department of Urology, Brawijaya University


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2022-02-28 — Updated on 2022-02-28




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