DASAR GENETIK OBESITAS VISERAL
AbstractObesity is defined as an excess proportion of totalbody fat. Nearly 40 million adults in the United States can be definedÂ as obese. There are several indexes used to assess Â obesity. The most common measure of obesity is the body massÂ index (BMI). Obesity occurs when a person's calorieintake exceeds the amount of energy he or she burns. Obesity tendsÂ to run in families, suggesting that it may have a genetic cause. However, family members share not only genes but alsoÂ diet and lifestyle habits that may contribute to obesity. Separating these lifestyle factors from genetic ones is often difficult.Â Still, growing evidence points to heredity as a strong determining factor of obesity. In one study of Â adults who wereÂ adopted as children, researchers found that their subjects' adult weights were closer to their biological parents' weightsÂ than to their adoptive parents'. The environment provided by the adoptive family apparently had less influence on theÂ development of obesity than the person's genetic makeup. Although genes are an important factor in many cases ofÂ obesity, a person's environment also plays a significant part. Psychological factors may also influence eating habits.Â Many people eat in response to negative emotions such as boredom, sadness, or anger.Â Key words:Genetic, Obesity, visceral
Bjorntorp P. Thrifty Genes an Human Obesity. Are we Chasing Ghosts?. Lancet 2001; 358:1006-1008.
Levin and Patterson* News & View. Exercising the obese brain: Resetting the defended body weight. Endocrinology 2005;146:1674-1675.
Chakravarthy MV, Booth FW. Eating, Exercise, and â€thriftyâ€ Genotypes: Connecting the Dots Toward an Evolutionary Understanding of Modern Chronic Diseases. J Appl Physiol 2004; 96: 3-10.
WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate Body Mass-Index for Asian Population and Its Implications for Policy and Intervention Strategies. Lancet 2004;363:157-163.
Booth ML, Chey T, Wake M et al. Change in the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity Among Young Australian, 1969-1997. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;77: 29-36.
Law CM, Barker DJ, Osmond C, Fall CH, Simmond SJ. Early Growth and Abdominal Fatness In Adult Life. J Epidemiol Community Health 1992;46:184-186.
Liu YJ, Xu FH, Shen H. et al. A Follow-Up Linkage Study for Quantitative Trait LociContributing to Obesity-Related Phenotypes.J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004; 89: 875-882.
Comuzzie, Anthony G. The Genetics of Obesity in Mexican Americans: The Evidence from Genome Scanning Efforts in the San Antonio Family Heart Study. Human Biology. 2003; 75(5):635-646.
Chagnon YC, Snyder EE, Walts B, PeÂ´russe L, Weisnagel SJ, Rankinen T, and Claude Bouchar. The Human Obesity Gene Map: The 2003 Update. Obesity Research. 2004; 12(3): 369-439.
Proietto J, Baur LA. 10: Management of Obesity. Med J Aust 2004;180:474-480.
Clement K, Garner C, Harger J, Philippi A, LeDuc C,Carcy A, Harris TJ, Jury C, Cardon LR, Basdevant A,Demenais F, Guy-Grand B, North M, Froguel P. Indication for Linkage of The Human Ob Gene Region With Extreme Obesity. Diabetes 1996;45:687-690.
Bouchard C. Currentunderstanding of Aetiology of Obesity Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1561-1565.
Oppert JM, Vohl MC, Chagnon M, Dionne FT, Cassad-Doulcier AM, Ricquier D, Perusse L, Bouchard C. DNA Polymorphism in the Uncoupling Protein (UCP) Gene and Human Body Fat.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994;18:526-531.
Wu Z, Rosen ED, Brun R, Hauser S, Adelmant G, Troy AE, McKeon C, Darlington GJ, and Spiegelman BM. Cross-Regulation of C/EBP _ and PPAR _ Controls the Transcriptional Pathway of Adipogenesis and Insulin Sensitivity. Mol. Cell. 1999;3: 151â€“158.
Tischler. Neuroendocrinology:Obesity. Lecture 2004;52:1-12.
Deeb SS, Fajas L, Nemoto M, Pihlajamaki J, MykkanenL, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Fujimoto W, Auwerx J. A Pro12Ala Substitution in PPAR2 Associated with Decreased Receptor Activity, Lower Body Mass Index and Improved Insulin Sensitivity. Nat Geet 1998; 20: 284-287.
Hager J, Clement K, Francke S, Dina C, Raison J, Lahlou N, Rich N, Pelloux V, Basdevant A, Guy-Grand B,North, M, Froguel P. A Polymorphism in the 5[prime]-untranslated Regionof the Human Ob Gene is Associated with Low Leptin Levels.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998; 22: 200-205.
Clement K, Vaisse C, Manning BS, Basdevant A, Gyu-Grand B, Ruiz J, Silver KD, Suldiner AR, Froguel P, Strosberg AD. Genetic Variation in the Î²3-adrenergic Receptor Gene and an Increased Capacity to Gain Weight in Patients with Morbid Obesity. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333: 352-354.
Zhang YY, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, and Friedman JM. Positional Cloning of The Mouse Obese Gene and Its Human Homolog. Nature 1994; 372: 425-432.
Farooqi IS, Jebb SA, Langmack G, Lawrence F, CheethamCH, Prentice AM, Hughes IA, Mc Camish MA, Oâ€™Rahilly S. Effects of Recombinant Leptin Therapy in a Child With Congenital Leptin Deficiency.N Engl J Med. 1999; 341:879-884.
Lander ES, and Botstein D. Mendelian Factors Underlying Quantitative Traits Using RFLP Linkage Maps. Genetics.1989; 121:185-199.
Froguel P and Boutin P. Genetic of Pathways Regulating Body Weight in The Development of Obesity in Humans. Exp Biol Med. 2001;226(11):991-996.
LicenseAuthors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).