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Risiko Malnutrisi terhadap Jumlah CD4⁺ Orang dengan HIV/AIDS yang Menjalani Terapi Antiretroviral di Mimika

Setyo Adiningsih, Mirna Widiyanti
  Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, Vol 30, No. 1 (2018),  pp.41-46  

Abstract


Hubungan status gizi dengan Cluster of Differentiation 4 (CD4⁺) pada Orang Dengan HIV/AIDS (ODHA) yang menjalani terapi antiretroviral (ARV) di Papua belum banyak diketahui. Penelitian bertujuan menganalisis hubungan status gizi terhadap jumlah CD4⁺ subjek penelitian. Parameter status gizi yang digunakan yaitu Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT) dan anemia. Jenis penelitian adalah observasional deskriptif dengan desain cross-sectional. Inklusi yaitu pasien laki-laki dan perempuan sedang terapi ARV minimal 6 bulan, memiliki data CD4⁺ dan rekam medis lengkap. Subjek penelitian yaitu 64 pasien HIV/AIDS yang menjalani terapi ARV di Rumah Sakit Mitra Masyarakat (RSMM) Mimika Papua bulan Januari sampai Oktober 2015, telah menyetujui inform consent dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi. Data dianalisis menggunakan statistik Fisher's Exact test dan Odds Ratio (OR). Mayoritas subjek penelitian adalah perempuan sebanyak 76,6%, kisaran umur 15-35 tahun sebanyak 60,9%, IMT >18,5 sebanyak 85,9%, kadar hemoglobin (Hb) <13g/dL sebanyak 73,4%, dan lama terapi ≤60 bulan sebanyak 75%. Hasil Fisher's Exact test dan OR, ada hubungan signifikan IMT terhadap jumlah CD4⁺ dengan nilai p˂0,05=0,006 dan OR=13,867 serta 95% interval konvidensi (CI)=2,396-80,266. Hal ini menunjukkan subjek penelitian dengan IMT≤18,5 atau malnutrisi berisiko 13,867 kali untuk memiliki jumlah CD4⁺ ≤200sel/ul dibandingkan subjek dengan IMT˃18,5. Variabel jenis kelamin, umur, kadar Hb, dan lama terapi ARV tidak berhubungan signifikan dengan jumlah CD4⁺. IMT kurus (malnutrisi) berhubungan signifikan dengan jumlah CD4⁺ rendah yaitu ≤200sel/ul. Jumlah CD4⁺ ≤200sel/ul berisiko mempercepat status HIV menjadi stadium 4 atau sakit berat yang mengarah kepada AIDS. 


Keywords


Antiretroviral; CD4⁺; HIV; malnutrisi; Mimika

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21776/ub.jkb.2018.030.01.8

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