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Hubungan Polimorfisme Gen ACTN3 dengan Kelincahan, Daya Ledak, dan Kecepatan

susiana candrawati, Nur Signa Aini Gumilas, Muhammad Nanang Himawan Kusuma, Pradani Eva Adiningtyas, Muhammad Cahya Riadi Sucipto, Sarah Shafira Aulia Rahmah
  Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya, Vol 29, No. 4 (2017),  pp.329-334  

Abstract


Komponen biomotorik kelincahan, daya ledak, dan kecepatan merupakan komponen yang harus dimiliki atlet sepak bola. Penelusuran genetik dapat menjadi salah satu metode talent profiling pada atlet sepak bola. Talent profiling belum pernah dilakukan pada kalangan atlet Indonesia terutama atlet yunior seperti atlet Unit Kegiatan Mahasiswa (UKM) Sepak Bola di (Universitas Jenderal Soedirman) UNSOED. Salah satu gen yang berhubungan dengan performa adalah gen ACTN3. Gen ACTN3 yang merupakan gen pengkode protein α-aktinin-3 pada serabut otot tipe cepat, diduga berpengaruh terhadap kelincahan, daya ledak dan kecepatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui hubungan polimorfisme gen ACTN3 dengan kelincahan, daya ledak dan kecepatan otot pada atlet sepakbola. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan studi observasional analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Metode pengumpulan subjek pada penelitian ini menggunakan consecutive sampling. Subjek pada penelitian ini adalah 82 atlet yang mengikuti UKM sepak bola Universitas Jenderal Soedirman. Metode PCR-RFLP dan elektroforesis digunakan untuk melihat polimorfisme gen ACTN3. Sedangkan pengukuran komponen biomotorik menggunakan tes agilitas Illinois (kelincahan), jump meter digital (daya ledak) dan tes sprint 30 meter (kecepatan). Analisis data menggunakan uji ANOVA satu arah dengan tingkat kemaknaan p=0,05. Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara polimorfisme gen ACTN3 dengan daya ledak otot (p=0,027) dan tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna antara polimorfisme gen ACTN 3 dengan kelincahan (p=0,084) dan kecepatan (p=0,507). Rerata terbaik ketiga komponen biomotorik terdapat pada alel RR gen ACTN 3. Disimpulkan terdapat hubungan antara polimorfisme gen ACTN3 dengan daya ledak otot, tapi tidak terdapat hubungan antara polimorfisme gen ACTN 3 dengan kelincahan dan kecepatan pada atlet sepakbola.


Keywords


Daya ledak, kecepatan, kelincahan, polimorfisme gen ACTN3, sepak bola

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